Cybersecurity Culture

Key Metrics and Performance Indicators (KPIs) for Cybersecurity Behavior and Culture

Key Metrics and Performance Indicators (KPIs) serve as crucial benchmarks for businesses, offering a clear gauge of progress towards specific goals and long-term objectives. In a highly quantifiable field like cybersecurity, KPIs are the perfect solution to effectively measure the effectiveness of security protocols, and identify areas for improvement. 

So, what if your goal is to foster a generally stronger cybersecurity culture? How do you measure employee behavior towards that goal? In this article, we’ll discuss the value of KPIs and outline the metrics to focus on to evaluate and improve cybersecurity behavior.

The Importance of Tracking Cybersecurity Behavior

Verizon found that 74% of data breaches in 2023 were caused by human error. Thus, one of the key focus areas for any cybersecurity program should be improving employee behavior and fostering a culture of security. 

However, cybersecurity is not a set-it-and-forget-it discipline. It requires constant evaluation, adjustment, and improvement to be able to respond to increasingly sophisticated risks and threats. This is especially true for employee behavior, which can fluctuate with changes in personnel, habits, or shifts in the organization’s culture.

By measuring specific KPIs, you can gain valuable insights into the everyday security habits, routines, and practices within your organization. KPIs provide quantifiable metrics, allowing you to assess how employees are responding to security initiatives or policies. Let’s say you have a security awareness program. You can use metrics to see the engagement with the program. If it’s not looking good, it may be time to consider alternatives, such as switching to a more gamified solution.

In the past, as a security leader, you may have also struggled to secure funding for these projects in the first place. But with measurable KPIs, you will have no problem translating the benefits of security programs into business terms, gaining broader buy-in from executives and the board. 

What Are the Main Metrics to Consider?

Now that we’ve discussed how KPIs enable continuous improvement in cybersecurity behavior and culture, let’s look at the metrics you should monitor to maximize the effectiveness of your security protocols. To do so, we’ll divide the metrics into several key categories:

Training and Awareness:


Training completion rates: Percentage of employees completing cybersecurity training.


Phishing simulation success rates: Number of employees who correctly handle simulated phishing attempts.


Employee cybersecurity assessment scores: Results of regular knowledge assessments.


Security awareness campaign engagement: Level of employee engagement in cybersecurity awareness initiatives.

Policy Adherence and Compliance:


Policy compliance rates: The degree to which employees adhere to cybersecurity policies.


Password compliance: Determines whether employees follow password-related guidelines, such as password length or change after a period of time.


User access compliance: Effectiveness in managing and adhering to user access rights.


Software update compliance: Timeliness of applying software patches and updates.


Number of repeat offenses: Frequency of repeated policy violations by employees.


Use of unauthorized devices or applications: Incidents involving unauthorized technology.

Employee Perception and Culture:


Employee feedback and surveys: Qualitative insights from employees about the cybersecurity policies, culture and training effectiveness.

These are quite a few metrics. It’s important to realize that humans are not perfect, and you will likely see subpar results on one or more of these KPIs, especially if cybersecurity hasn’t been a top priority for a long time. As a security leader, you must set realistic goals about tracking and improving on KPIs, especially when presenting to upper management or stakeholders. 

Communicate the journey towards enhanced cybersecurity as a progressive, ongoing process, rather than expecting immediate perfection. This approach sets a more achievable standard and fosters a culture of continuous improvement and resilience within the organization.

Some Obstacles You May Encounter

Generally speaking, people are resistant to change. And that’s one obstacle you may encounter. Employees may feel uneasy with the fact that their behaviors are being tracked. The best way to address this is to be transparent and explain the security benefits of measuring behavior, while also ensuring employees understand that the goal is to improve, not punish individuals for bad habits.

With several metrics to track, you may also experience data overload. To minimize its effects, it’s best to prioritize KPIs and focus on the most impactful data. 

Last but not least, budget constraints can be difficult to maneuver against when trying to implement KPIs tracking. This specific aspect of cybersecurity often competes with more direct security measures for funding. To address this, it’s important to highlight the long-term value and efficiency gains that effective KPI tracking can bring to an organization’s cybersecurity efforts.

Final thoughts

In cybersecurity, Key Metrics and Performance Indicators (KPIs) are not just beneficial but essential. These metrics serve as a compass, guiding organizations towards a stronger cybersecurity posture by spotlighting areas needing enhancement and celebrating progress.

By embracing KPIs, leaders can transform abstract concepts of security awareness into tangible, actionable insights. This approach elevates security practices and fosters a culture where every member becomes a contributor to keeping the organization safe.

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